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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 9-16

SEM evaluation of surface morphologic analysis of restorative materials with three laser treatment


Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey

Date of Web Publication19-Sep-2013

Correspondence Address:
Duygu Kurklu
Division of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, Ataturk University, Erzurum
Turkey
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0976-2868.118414

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  Abstract 

Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of laser treatment on surface morphology of restorative materials. Materials and Methods: The samples included 19 porcelain ceramics (Group P), 10 half yttrium stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) and half porcelain (Group ZP), and 13 Y-TZP ceramic (Group Z). Pilot study was applied on the prepared samples to determine the effectiveness of hydroxyapatite or graphite powder before surface treatment. Following the pilot study, three laser systems were treated over all ceramic surfaces and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken to do topographic analysis of the samples. Results: According to the results of pilot study; surfaces of zirconia, porcelain, and zirconia-porcelain samples were covered with graphite powder and then treated by CO 2 laser, erbium:Yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) and neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser. SEM observations were reported for all laser types and all laser parameters that were chosen. Conclusion: The three types of laser products; CO 2 , Er:YAG, and Nd:YAG are also effective on different output powers on different types of restorative materials.

Keywords: CO 2 laser, erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet, laser, lasers in dentistry, neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser


How to cite this article:
Kurklu D, Yanikoglu N. SEM evaluation of surface morphologic analysis of restorative materials with three laser treatment. J Dent Lasers 2013;7:9-16

How to cite this URL:
Kurklu D, Yanikoglu N. SEM evaluation of surface morphologic analysis of restorative materials with three laser treatment. J Dent Lasers [serial online] 2013 [cited 2022 Jul 2];7:9-16. Available from: https://www.jdentlasers.org/text.asp?2013/7/1/9/118414


  Introduction Top


The increasing demand for esthetic restorations has led to the greater use of all ceramic materials due to their improved biocompatibility and optical properties compared with metal-ceramic restorations. [1] Yttrium stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) material is used as a framework for the fabrication of complete coverage crowns and long span fixed partial dentures because of its unique mechanical properties. [2],[3]

In spite of the advantages of Y-TZP materials including life-like appearance, biocompatibility, and durability; there are still disadvantages for their use clinically. [4] Fractures may result from trauma, inadequate occlusal adjustment, parafunctional habits, flexural fatigue of the metal substructure, incompatibility of the coefficient of the mal expansion between the porcelain and the Y-TZP material, failures in the adhesive bonding, inadequate tooth reduction during dental preparation, porosities in the porcelain, and inappropriate coping design. [5] An esthetic and functional repair of a fractured ceramic restoration has many advantages over time-consuming and expensive remakes of crowns and/or bridges. [6] Ideally, a remake of the restoration is desirable, but this is not always feasible. [7]

When a repair is required instead of a refabrication, choosing the best repair method is important. Earlier ceramic repair systems relied on macromechanical bonding between the repair material and the surface of a fractured ceramic restoration by preparing grooves or undercuts. Current ceramic repair systems are based on chemical and micromechanical bonding between the ceramic surface and the repair material, and the bond depends on surface preparation. [6],[8] Several conditioning methods, such as air-particle abrasion, acid etching, laser irradiation, and silica coating are used to pretreat the ceramic surface to improve bond strength. [4],[9],[10] All these procedures modify the texture of the surface to achieve effective micromechanical bonding. [11]

Laser treatment for roughening the ceramic surface is popular in repair procedures. da Silva and colleagues [12] evaluated the influence of the neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) and erbium:YAG (Er:YAG) laser surface treatment of a feldspathic ceramic on shear bond strength of resin cements. Akyil et al., [13] investigated the bond strength of resin cement to Y-TZP ceramic treated with laser irradiation and also suggested that there was no significant difference; CO 2 laser has higher strength values than Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers.

The wavelengths of those lasers most commonly used in surface roughening, which include CO 2 , Nd:YAG, and Er:YAG laser; range from 1,064 to 10,600 nm. [14],[15],[16] With respect to zirconia; however, little is known about the influence of different laser parameters on the properties and surface characteristics of zirconia and porcelain during surface treatment. In addition, graphite powder and hydroxyapatite powder were both used for increasing the absorption of the laser beam. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to analyze the influence on possible surface alterations on different parameters of Er:YAG, CO 2 , and Nd:YAG laser irradiation.


  Materials and Methods Top


Forty-two cylindrical specimens were fabricated with feldspathic porcelain and/or Y-TZP:19 porcelain (Group P), 10 half Y-TZP and half porcelain (Group ZP), and 13 Y-TZP ceramic (Group Z). All specimen discs with a diameter of 10 mm and a thickness of 2 mm were fabricated according to the manufacturer's recommendations [Figure 1]. Y-TZP materials were prepared by presintering blocks (Zirkonzahn-Steger Ahrntal ZB0060912), suitable for the DentalPro CAD/CAM Milling Unit (Cad Blu, New York) that can move at a maximum speed of 250 inches per min. Porcelain was prepared by using dentin and enamel porcelain powder (Noritake-Japan 024553/025931). In this study, a pilot study was designed before the laser treatment to evaluate the influence of graphite and hydroxyapatite powder (Bionnovation Biomedical/Brazil, lot no: 013642).
Figure 1: Samples were prepared before the repairment process

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Pilot study

In this pilot study, hydroxyapatite powder and graphite powder were applied to the surfaces in order to increase the absorption of laser energy. [12],[17] Three different types of laser systems (CO 2 , Er:YAG, and Nd:YAG lasers) were used for the purpose of the efficiency of the powders then examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM, Jeol JSM- and 400 SEM, JEOL Ltd.) at 1,000× magnification. Nine feldspathic porcelain samples were divided into three groups for the three different types of laser systems. Within the pilot study, only the feldspathic ceramic surface was conditioned by hydroxyapatite powder because the water spray used for laser cooling removes the hydroxyapatite powder and decreases its efficiency.

Water cooling is necessary with laser treatment on Y-TZP ceramics as, without cooling, during the spontaneous transformation from the (m) phase to the unstable (t) phase, a simultaneous, noticeable volume decrease of the crystals ensues by 4-5%. [18]

Superficial areas (38.46 mm 2 ) of the specimens were delineated with adhesive tape to demarcate the irradiation area and coated with hydroxyapatite powder or graphite powder or was not coated at all before each laser application. The laser beam was directed over the ceramic surface in a noncontact mode at a working distance of approximately 1 mm. [17],[19]

The three laser parameters that were used in the pilot study are given in [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]. SEM analysis of the specimens' surfaces showed that all of the laser irradiations in the control group, with no surface coating, exhibited no significant surface alteration to both coating with graphite and hydroxyapatite powder. All of the laser irradiations on the specimens with graphite powder coated surfaces created more roughness than the others [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4].
Figure 2: Scanning electron micrographs of porcelain surfaces after CO2 laser irradiation at poweroutput of 2 W; (a) hydroxyapatite powder coating, (b) graphite powder coating, and (c) no coating

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Figure 3: Scanning electron micrographs of porcelain surfaces after erbium:Yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser irradiation at poweroutput of 2 W, 200 mJ, 10 Hz; (a) hydroxyapatite powder coating, (b) graphite powder coating, and (c) no coating

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Figure 4: Scanning electron micrographs of porcelain surfaces after neodymium (Nd):YAG laser irradiation at poweroutput of 1 W, 50 mJ, 20 Hz; (a) hydroxyapatite powder coating, (b) graphite powder coating, and (c) no coating

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On the grounds of the SEM analysis' results of the pilot study; it was observed that graphite powder had increased the laser absorption significantly comparing to both the hydroxyapatite and uncoated specimens. For this reason, all specimens' surfaces were coated with graphite powder before the laser treatment in experimental groups.

Experimental groups

Ten feldspathic porcelain ceramics, 10 half of Y-TZP and half of porcelain, and 13 Y-TZP ceramics were used in experimental groups, according to the following laser parameters. These laser parameters were defined according to what previous studies evaluated. [12],[13],[14],[17],[20],[21],[22],[23] Parameters evaluated in this study were shown in [Table 1].
Table 1: Laser parameters and experimental groups

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*CO 2 laser; six samples of Group Z, three samples of Group P, and three samples of Group ZP surfaces were irradiated with a CO 2 laser (Smart US-20 D, DEKA) with a 1,060 nm wavelength operating in continuous mode with a 4 mm diameter titanium articulated arm transmission system. A 2 mm diameter periotype delivered the laser beam with a 2 ms pulse length for 40 s, and an adjustable air and water spray was used for alienation purposes.

*Er:YAG laser; Er:YAG laser (Smartfile 2940D PLUS, DEKA, Florence, Italy) was treated on the surfaces of four samples of Group Z, four samples of Group P, and four samples of Group ZP with a 2,940 nm wavelength in short pulse mode by a 1 mm diameter optical fiber transmission system. The laser beam was delivered by a 400 mm diameter sapphire tip at a 75 ms pulse length for 40 s, and an adjustable air and water spray was used for alienation purposes.

*Nd:YAG laser; three samples of Group Z, three samples of Group P, and three samples of Group ZP surfaces were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser (Smartfile, DEKA, Florence, Italy) with a 1,064 nm wavelength in canal sterilization mode by a 600 mm diameter optical fiber transmission system. The laser beam was delivered by a 320 mm flexible optical fiber tip at a 150 ms pulse length for 40 s, and an adjustable air and water spray was used for alienation purposes.

For laser irradiation of the specimens' surfaces, the laser beams were manually directed perpendicularly over the surface in a noncontact mode without the use of a fixed support at a working distance of approximately 1 mm in order to simulate clinical conditions. [22] After irradiation, specimens were sputter-coated with gold-palladium for 3 min at a current of 10 mA and vacuum of 130 mTorr (Hummer VII, Anatech Ltd.). They were then examined with a SEM at 1,000× magnification.


  Results Top


Morphological evaluation

SEM observations

Results of effective laser parameters for each laser; CO 2 , Er:YAG, and Nd:YAG are shown in [Table 2].
Table 2: Results of effective laser parameters (outputs)

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For CO 2 laser treatment

SEM analyses of Group Z surfaces are shown in [Figure 5]. SEM analysis of the Y-TZP surfaces showed that laser irradiation at 3, 3.4, and 4.5 W caused perceptible loss of Y-TZP material and wide cracks [Figure 5]d-f, although irradiation at 2 W exhibited no significant surface alteration [Figure 5]a. Additionally, laser irradiation at 3 W caused surface deformation [Figure 5]c. Laser irradiation at 2.5 W created a rough surface, with voids and a plaque-like scaly appearance [Figure 5]b.
Figure 5: Scanning electron micrographs of yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) surfaces after CO2 laser irradiation at power outputs of (a) 2 W, (b) 2.5 W, (c) 3 W, (d) 3.4 W, (e) 4 W, and (f) 4.5 W at magnification ×1,000

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SEM analyses of Group P surfaces are shown in [Figure 6]. SEM analysis of the feldspathic porcelain surfaces showed that laser irradiation at 3 W caused large areas to melt, [Figure 6]c although irradiation at 1.3 W exhibited no significant surface alteration [Figure 6]a. The laser irradiation at 2 W created a rough surface without causing any areas to melt [Figure 6]b.
Figure 6: Scanning electron micrographs of feldspathic porcelain surfaces after CO2 laser irradiation at power outputs of (a) 1.3 W, (b) 2 W, and (c) 3 W at magnification ×1,000

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SEM analyses of Group ZP surfaces are shown in [Figure 7]. SEM analysis of the feldspathic porcelain surfaces shows that laser irradiation at 2.5 and 3 W caused large areas to melt [Figure 7]b and c and that there was an adequate rough surface alteration at 2 W. [Figure 7]a
Figure 7: Scanning electron micrographs of Y-TZP and porcelain surfaces after CO2 laser irradiation at power outputs of (a) 2 W, (b) 2.5 W, and (c) 3 W at magnification ×1,000

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Irradiation at 2 W was chosen for half of the Y-TZP and half of the porcelain surfaces because the laser irradiation at 2.5 W that was originally chosen for Y-TZP specimens caused areas to melt on the porcelain surfaces.

For Er:YAG laser treatment; SEM analyses of Group Z surfaces are shown in [Figure 8]. SEM analysis of the Y-TZP surfaces show that laser irradiation at 4 W caused wide macro cracks [Figure 8]d, although irradiation at 1 and 2 W exhibited no significant surface alteration [Figure 8]a and b. Laser irradiation at 3 W created a rough surface with voids [Figure 8]c.
Figure 8: Scanning electron micrographs of Y-TZP surfaces after Er:YAG laser irradiation at power outputs of (a) 1 W, (b) 2 W, (c) 3 W, and (d) 4 W at magnification ×1,000

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SEM analyses of Group P surfaces are shown in [Figure 9]. SEM analysis of the feldspathic porcelain surfaces shows that laser irradiation at 2 and 3 W caused large areas to melt [Figure 9]b and c] and that irradiation at 4 W exhibited smooth surface alteration because of the large, melted areas [Figure 9]d. The laser irradiation at 1 W created a rough surface without melting any areas [Figure 9]a.
Figure 9: Scanning electron micrographs of feldspathic porcelain surfaces after Er:YAG laser irradiation at power outputs of (a) 1 W, (b) 2 W, (c) 3 W, and (d) 4 W at magnification ×1,000

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SEM analyses of Group ZP surfaces are shown in [Figure 10]. SEM analysis of the feldspathic porcelain surfaces shows that laser irradiation at 2, 3, and 4 W caused large areas to melt [Figure 10]b-d and that there was an adequate rough surface alteration at 1 W [Figure 10]a.
Figure 10: Scanning electron micrographs of Y-TZP and porcelain surfaces after Er:YAG laser irradiation at power outputs of (a) 1 W, (b) 2 W, (c) 3 W, and (d) 4 W at magnification ×1,000

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Irradiation at 2 W was chosen for half of the Y-TZP and half of the porcelain surfaces because the laser irradiation at 3 W that was originally chosen for the Y-TZP specimens caused areas to melt on the porcelain surfaces.

For Nd:YAG laser treatment; SEM analyses of Group Z surfaces are shown in [Figure 11]. SEM analysis of the Y-TZP surfaces shows that laser irradiation at 1 W exhibited no significant surface alteration [Figure 11]a. However, irradiation at 3 W caused areas to melt on the surface of the Y-TZP specimen [Figure 11]c. Laser irradiation at 2 W created a rough surface with voids [Figure 11]b.
Figure 11: Scanning electron micrographs of Y-TZP surfaces after Nd:YAG laser irradiation at power outputs of (a) 1 W, (b) 2 W, and (c) 3 W at magnification ×1,000

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SEM analyses of Group P surfaces are shown in [Figure 12]. SEM analysis of the feldspathic porcelain surfaces shows that laser irradiation at 3 W caused areas to melt [Figure 12]c and that irradiation at 2 W caused micro cracks on surface alteration [Figure 12]b. Laser irradiation at 1 W created a rough surface without melting areas [Figure 12]a.
Figure 12: Scanning electron micrographs of feldspathic porcelain surfaces after Nd:YAG laser irradiation at power outputs of (a) 1 W, (b) 2 W, and (c) 3 W at magnification ×1,000

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SEM analyses of Group ZP surfaces are shown in [Figure 13]. SEM analysis shows that laser irradiation at 2 and 3 W caused large areas to melt on feldspathic porcelain surfaces [Figure 13]b and c and that there was an adequate rough surface alteration at 1 W [Figure 13]a.
Figure 13: Scanning electron micrographs of Y-TZP and porcelain surfaces after Nd:YAG laser irradiation at power outputs of (a) 1 W, (b) 2 W, and (c) 3 W at magnification ×1,000

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Irradiation at 1 W was chosen for half of the Y-TZP and half of the porcelain surfaces because the laser irradiation at 2 W that was originally chosen for the Y-TZP specimens caused areas to melt on the porcelain surfaces.


  Discussion Top


The present study was conducted to determine whether CO 2 , Er:YAG, and Nd:YAG irradiation can provide superficial alterations and be used as a surface treatment for Y-TZP ceramics and feldspathic porcelain. Surface morphology was observed by SEM.

The principal effect of laser energy is the conversion of light energy into heat, and the most important interaction between the laser energy by the substrate. [24],[25] In normal; recommended use of the lasers, graphite, hydroxyapatite, or an absorption media is not used. [25] Nevertheless, the absorption of laser energy by Y-TZP ceramics might be compromised since they are water-free materials that have a white, opaque coloration. This is the reason for hydroxyapatite and graphite powder being used to increase the absorption of laser energy. [12],[17] Additionally, Akyil et al., coated Y-TZP ceramics with graphite powder before each laser application to increase the absorption of laser energy. [13] During this preliminary investigation, it was noted that laser irradiation had minimal or no effects on uncoated surfaces. Spohr [23] et al., and Silveira et al., [21] applied graphite powder to cover the ceramic surface, thus increasing the energy absorption. On the other hand, the effects of CO 2 , Er:YAG, and Nd:YAG lasers on surfaces coated with graphite could clearly be seen. It has been shown in this study in [Figure 2]c, [Figure 3]c, and [Figure 4]c.

The CO 2 laser is well suited for the treatment of porcelain mterials because its emission wavelength is almost totally absorbed by porcelain. During the process of heat induction of porcelain surfaces with a focused CO 2 laser, conchoidal tears-typical effects of surface warming-appear. These tears are believed to provide mechanical retention between resin composite and porcelain. [20] Ural et al., [26] reported that a 3 W CO 2 laser in superpulse mode was found to be appropriate for achieving a strong resin-ceramic bond as laser-treated surfaces reached a shear bond strength value higher than untreated, hydrofluoric acid, and sandblasting surfaces.

Among the various types of laser, the Er:YAG laser is most often used on dental ceramics because its wavelength coincides with the main absorption peak of water and it is well observed by OH - groups in hydroxyapatite. [9] SEM evaluation shows that the Er:YAG laser irradiation made convenient surfaces at a power output of 3 W (300 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz) for zirconia samples, 1 W (100 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz) for porcelain samples, and 1 W (100 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz) for both zirconia and porcelain samples. Cavalcanti et al., [17] found that Er:YAG irradiation at 400 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz for 5 s (600 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz on Y-TZP surfaces) caused areas to melt, as well as macro cracks. However, it was observed in SEM evaluation that there were some color differences on the surfaces because of the heating and cooling process of the laser treatment.

In our study it was found that Nd:YAG laser irradiation was effective on both Y-TZP and porcelain samples. Minamizato [27] found that Nd:YAG laser irradiation at 13 J/pulse and frequency ranging from 1 to 10 Hz can be effective on Y-TZP surface for creating abrasions. Akyil et al., [13] evaluated Y-TZP surfaces that were irradiated at a power output of 2 W exhibited a bubbled blister-like appearance and unusual micro cracks. In our current study, at a power output of 2 W (100 mJ/10 Hz), Y-TZP surfaces showed regular rough surface with voids. Whereas, porcelain surfaces, at 2 and 3 W power outputs, exhibited micro cracks and melted areas.


  Conclusion Top


It was concluded in SEM evaluations that graphite powder is more effective than hydroxyapatite powder for absorbing laser energy. Graphite powder increased the presence of surface roughness in low laser output power values. The three types of laser products; CO 2 , Er:YAG, and Nd:YAG are also effective on different output powers on different types of restorative materials.


  Acknowledgment Top


This work is based on a thesis submitted to Ataturk University, Faculty of Dentistry in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Ph.D. degree for Duygu Kurklu. The authors are thankful to By Dental, Izmýr, TR for material and technical support; and also thankful to Dr. Veysel Balkaya and Dt. Alper Eminoglu for supplying the laser equipment.

 
  References Top

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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11], [Figure 12], [Figure 13]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]


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