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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-December 2019
Volume 13 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 33-61

Online since Thursday, November 14, 2019

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Editors message p. 33
Vivek Hegde
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Evaluation of the efficacy of Er:YAG laser–activated irrigation in a simulated accessory canal p. 34
Tomoko Kihara, Himeka Matsumoto, Yoshito Yoshimine
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of laser-activated irrigation (LAI) on the removal of debris-mimicking hydrogel from a simulated accessory canal. Materials and Methods: The simulated accessory canal was located 3 mm from the apex, perpendicular to the straight main canal. Gelatin hydrogel as a substitute of debris was used to fill the simulated accessory canal. The root canals were irrigated for 20 or 40 seconds by LAI using an erbium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser (30 mJ, 20 pps) or for 40 seconds by syringe irrigation (SI). During LAI, the cone-shaped tip of the laser was positioned stationary at 3 or 10 mm from the apex. Irrigation was performed using 5% NaOCl. The distance over which the hydrogel was removed from the accessory canal entrance was measured and compared between the irrigation procedures. Results: Using NaOCl as the irrigant, a significant increase was observed in the distance over which the hydrogel was removed by LAI compared with that by SI. A longer irradiation period with LAI resulted in significantly greater amount of hydrogel removal. There was no significant difference in hydrogel removal when the laser tip was positioned at 3 and 10 mm from the apex. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro model, LAI removed more hydrogel from the accessory canal than SI, when using NaOCl as the irrigant. Furthermore, the irradiation time influenced the cleaning efficacy, but the tip position did not.
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Fluid flow analysis of laser-activated irrigation in the simulated root canal p. 39
Tomoko Kihara, Himeka Matsumoto, Yoshito Yoshimine
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of laser-activated irrigation, the streaming pattern, and its relevance to laser-induced bubbles in a transparent simulated root canal. In addition, the effects of tip position on irrigant flow were examined. Materials and Methods: Particle image velocimetry with a high-speed camera was used, which enabled tracking of buoyant tracer movement. Recorded images were analyzed using two-dimensional fluid analysis software. The tip of an erbium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser was placed either in the coronal chamber or in the root canal. Results: On laser irradiation within the coronal chamber, rapid streaming appeared in the entire root canal immediately after the advent of the vapor bubble. Peak flow velocity was observed when the vapor bubble grew to peak size. In contrast, when the tip was placed in the root canal, rapid streaming was related to the appearance of secondary cavitation bubbles and confined to the apical region. Conclusion: The streaming pattern in laser-activated irrigation was affected by the tip position in the root canal. In addition, there was a close relation between the formation of laser-induced bubbles and rapid streaming.
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Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of a traditional composite and ACTIVA BioACTIVE after enamel preparation with Er:YAG laser and conventional acid etching: An in vitro study p. 44
Charu Nijhawan, Purshottam Jasuja, Anshu Sharma, Heena Khurana, Ekta Gakhar
Objective: Traditional composites are strong and esthetic, but they have no bioactive potential and require bonding agents that have been shown to leak, cause white lines, staining, and failure. ACTIVA BioACTIVE is the first composite with an ionic resin matrix and bioactive fillers that mimic the physical and chemical properties of natural teeth. The aim of the study was to compare shear bond strength of traditional composite and resin-modified glass-ionomer bioactive ionic resin-based composite after enamel preparation with erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser and conventional acid etching. Materials and Methods: Forty sound extracted molars were divided into four groups of 10 samples each. In group I, specimens were bur treated followed by bonding of composite. In group II, specimens were laser treated followed by bonding of composite. In group III, specimens were bur treated followed by bonding of Bioactive. In group IV, specimens were laser treated followed by bonding of ACTIVA BioACTIVE. Buccal tooth surfaces were prepared approximately half of the enamel depth. A tube was filled with composite and placed on the treated tooth surface. Once the curing was complete, the tube molds were removed. After thermocycling, the shear bond strength testing was performed using the Instron Testing Machine, and the data were statistically analyzed. Results: Bur preparation followed by bonding of Bioactive yielded the highest bond strength followed by laser preparation. Conclusion: Er:YAG laser preparation caused decreased shear bond strength compared to conventional bur preparation.
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Drug-induced gingival enlargement: A case report p. 49
Suhani Goel, Shivjot Chhina, Sachit A Arora
Gingival overgrowth is associated with multiple factors including congenital diseases, hormonal disturbances, poor oral hygiene condition, inflammation, neoplastic conditions, and adverse drug reactions including anticonvulsants, calcium channel blockers, and immunosuppressants. This can have a detrimental effect on the quality of life and also on high oral bacterial load caused by plaque-retentive areas. Various treatment modalities include both surgical (gingivectomy, periodontal flap, electrosurgery, and laser excision) and nonsurgical approaches (oral hygiene measures, scaling and root planing, discontinuation of the drug, or the replacement of the drug with other alternative).
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Diode laser excision of pyogenic granuloma: A case report p. 52
Vineet Bansal, Aravinda Konidena, Amrit K Mann, Farheen Farooq
Pyogenic granuloma is a commonly occurring inflammatory hyperplasia of the skin and oral mucosa in females. It is a misnomer that is characterized histologically by angiomatous proliferation rather than a granulomatous lesion. This tumorlike growth is considered to be nonneoplastic in nature and has a varied clinical presentation. We present one such case of pyogenic granuloma, which was excised with diode laser along with relevant review of literature.
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Application of diode laser in immediate implant restoration: A case report p. 56
Shivaprasad Bilichodmath, Geetha K, Rekha Bilichodmath
Loss of teeth because of trauma in aesthetic zone is a common accident. Tooth loss may lead to bone resorption and collapse of the gingival architecture, which leads to unaesthetic appearance and functional impairment. Replacement of tooth in the anterior region is aesthetically challenging. Immediate implant placement into fresh extraction socket is considered an effective option for restoring missing teeth as it reduces the treatment time, preserves the hard and soft tissues, and reduces the number of surgical interventions. This case report describes application of diode laser in achieving a good emergence profile in a case of immediate implant placement and early implant loading in a 24-year-old boy who was with satisfied aesthetic and functional outcomes.
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